本期文章

Mysterious, Magical Moldavite  神秘的魔法石──捷克隕石

by Luke Dodds    

This little-known and "otherworldly" stone is full of beauty and mystery.





這種鮮為人知的石頭來自『另一個世界』,美麗且神秘。





With its strange wrinkled surface, glassy moldavite (捷克隕石) looks like a man-made prop for a science fiction movie. However, the stone occurs naturally and is found scattered across central Europe, from the Czech Republic to Austria to southern Germany. With colors ranging from olive green to brown, moldavite is a rare type of stone called tektite (玻隕石), the origins of _(1)_ are still uncertain. Two main theories have been _(2)_ for their origins. Both place it in outer space.





Among geologists, the generally-accepted theory of tektite's origins is as _(3)_. Throughout history, the earth has been struck by countless meteorites that slam into the crust with tremendous speed and pressure. Not quite 15 million years ago, _(4)_ meteorite, enormous in size, smashed into the earth in central Europe. The _(5)_ heat of the impact instantly liquefied the surrounding rocks, and molten rocks were flung high into the atmosphere. The molten materials cooled and hardened rapidly as they fell back to earth, producing moldavite. There are three other tektite fields on earth, and _(6)_ they were all produced by different meteorite impacts.





Another theory, which is less popular, places tektite's origins on the moon. Some scientists have noted similarities between tektite and rocks that exist below the surface of the moon. Some of these rocks reach the surface of the moon through volcanic processes. The theory states that our planet's tektite was actually blasted into space by an enormous moon volcano _(7)_.

To end on an even more mysterious note: gem enthusiasts claim the stone's cosmic origins grant it magical powers.

1.(A) it(B) which(C) that(D) what

2.(A) defined(B)prescribed(C)derived(D) proposed

3.(A) follows(B) follow(C)following(D) followed

4.(A) such one(B)a one such(C) one such(D) one such a

5.(A) tense(B) intense(C) intensive(D) extensive

6.(A) in contrast(B) for instance(C) in theory (D) by chance

7.(A) eruption(B) erosion(C)invasion (D) injection





1. With colors ranging from olive green to brown, moldavite is a rare type of stone called tektite, the origins of which are still uncertain.

理由:

a. 空格前為有主詞(moldavite)及述部(is a rare type of stone called tektite)的完整句構,可知空格應置入關係代名詞,以引導形容詞子句修飾其前的名詞 tektite。

b. 代名詞 it 置入後,會造成兩個句子沒有連接詞連接的狀況,故 (A) 不可選。

c. which 為關係代名詞,置入後可用來代替 tektite,作其前介詞 of 的受詞,亦可作形容詞子句中的主詞,符合用法,故選 (B)。

d. that 可等於 which,作關係代名詞引導形容詞子句,但其前不可有介詞,而空格前有 of,故 (C) 不可選。

e. what 為複合關係代名詞,即等於 the thing(s) which,故其前不可再有先行詞(名詞),而空格前有先行詞 tektite,因此 (D) 不可選。



2. Two main theories have been proposed for their origin. Both place it in outer space.

理由:

a. (A) define vt. 為……下定義

(B) prescribe vt. 開藥方

(C) derive vt. 使源自於(與介詞 from 並用)

be derived from...  源自於……

例: Her name is derived from the Egyptian word for beauty.

(她的名字源自於埃及文,意思是『美麗』。)

(D) propose vt. 提議,提出

例: The manager proposed various changes for improvement at the office meeting.

(經理在公司會議上提出各種改進的意見。)

b. 根據語意,可知應選 (D)。



3. Among geologists, the generally-accepted theory of tektite's origins is as follows.

理由:

a. 本空格測試下列固定用法:

as follows  如下所述

例: The events will be held as follows.

(我們將舉行以下活動。)

b. 根據上述,可知應選 (A)。



4. Not quite 15 million years ago, one such meteorite, enormous in size, smashed into the earth in central Europe.

理由:

本空格在測試 such 的用法:

a. such 可視為形容詞,表『如此的』,須與名詞並用。與單數可數名詞並用時,要置於不定冠詞(a/an)前。

例: She is such an attractive woman that every man dreams of dating her.

(她是如此迷人的女性,每個男人都想和她約會。)

b. such 與單數可數名詞並用,且其前有 one 或 no 時,one/no 之前及 such 之後均不可再加冠詞,否則將造成冠詞重複。

例: There is one such a stone in Canada. (╳)

→ There is one such stone in Canada. (○)

(加拿大有這樣的石頭。)

c. 空格後有單數可數名詞 meteorite(隕石),故根據上述,(C) one such 應為正選;無 "such one" 的用法,故 (A) 不可選。(B) a one such 與 (D) one such a 加了冠詞,故均不可選。



5. The intense heat of the impact instantly liquefied the surrounding rocks, and molten rock was flung high into the atmosphere.

理由:

a. (A) tense a. 緊張的;繃緊的

例: The salesman leads a tense life.

(該業務員生活過得很緊張。)

(B) intense a. 強烈的,極度的

intense heat  酷熱

例: Hitler was known for his intense hatred of minorities.

(希特勒以他強烈仇視少數族群而聞名。)

(C) intensive a. 密集的

intensive course  密集課程

intensive training  密集訓練

例: Sam obtained his driver's license after taking an intensive course.

(山姆上完密集課程後拿到了駕照。)

(D) extensive a. 廣泛的

例: I did some extensive research on computers before buying one.

(在買電腦前,我先對電腦做了些廣泛的研究。)

b. 根據語意及用法,可知應選 (B)。



6. There are three other tektite fields on earth, and in theory they were all produced by different meteorite impacts.

理由:

a. (A) in contrast  相較之下,對比地

例: Mary is beautiful. In contrast, her sister isn't very attractive.

(瑪莉很漂亮,相對之下,她姊姊就不那麼迷人。)

(B) for instance  例如

= for example

(C) in theory  理論上

in practice  實際上

= in reality

例: The proposal sounds all right in theory, but it doesn't work at all in practice.

(這項提議理論上聽起來還不錯,但實際上完全行不通。)

(D) by chance  偶然地

= by accident

= accidentally adv.

例: By chance, David heard his favorite song on the radio.

(大衛無意間在收音機裡聽到他最愛的那首歌。)

b. 根據語意,可知應選 (C)。



7. The theory states that our planet's tektite was actually blasted into space by an enormous moon volcano eruption.

理由:

a. (A) eruption n.(火山)爆發

(B) erosion n. 腐蝕

(C) invasion n. 侵略

(D) injection n. 注射

b. 空格前有名詞 volcano(火山),故根據語意,可知應選 (A)。

精解字詞片語





1. scatter vt. 散佈 & vi. 散開

例: When I dropped the bowl, grapes scattered everywhere.

(我打翻碗時,葡萄散落各處。)



2. range from A to B  (範圍)從……到……都有

例: Bicycle prices can range from US$20 to US$5,000.

(腳踏車從 20 元美金到 5,000 元美金都有。)



3. slam vi. 猛力關閉

slam into...  猛力撞上……

slam on the brakes  猛踩煞車,緊急煞車

例: I slammed into a wall when I wasn't looking.

(我沒注意看,所以撞上一面牆。)

例: Sarah slammed on the brakes when she saw the dog.

(莎拉看到狗狗時緊急煞車。)



4. smash vi. 猛撞 & vt. 重擊,粉碎

smash into...  撞上……

例: The truck smashed into a tree.

(那輛卡車撞到了一棵樹。)

例: I'm so angry I want to smash a window.

(我好生氣,氣到想擊碎窗戶。)



5. impact n. 衝擊,撞擊

on impact  在衝擊時,在碰撞時

例: The car burst into flames on impact.

(那輛車因衝撞而起火燃燒。)



6. note vt. 注意到 & n. 筆記

jot down notes  做筆記

= take down notes

= write down notes

take note of...  注意到……

例: You tell me what happened and I'll jot down notes.

(你告訴我發生了什麼事,我來做筆記。)

例: You should take note of his behavior. He is a little bit weird today.

(你要多注意他的行為。他今天有點怪怪的。)



7. grant vt. 給予

例: I grant you the permission to have three wishes.

(我准許你許三個願望。)



難句分析

The molten materials cooled and hardened rapidly as they fell back to earth, producing moldavite.

= The molten materials cooled and hardened rapidly as they fell back to earth, and produced moldavite.

(熔化的物質掉落到地球時,很快地冷卻變硬,捷克隕石因而誕生。)

單字小舖





1. moldavite n. 捷克隕石

2. wrinkled a. 有皺摺的;有皺紋的

wrinkle n. 皺摺;皺紋

3. glassy a. 玻璃似的,光亮透明的

4. prop n. 道具

5. olive green n. 橄欖綠

6. tektite n. 玻隕石

7. origin n. 起源,由來

8. geologist n. 地質學家

9. meteorite n. 隕石,隕星

10. crust n. 地殼

11. tremendous a. 巨大的

12. enormous a. 巨大的

13. liquefy vt. 使液化

14. surrounding a. 周圍的

15. molten a. 溶化的

16. fling vt. 投,擲 (三態為:fling, flung , flung。)

17. harden vi. 變硬

18. similarity n. 相似處

19. volcanic a. 火山的

20. blast vi. 炸開

21. volcano n. 火山

22. cosmic a. 宇宙的





玻璃狀的捷克隕石有著皺巴巴的奇特表面,看起來就像科幻電影裡的人工道具。不過,這種石頭是自然形成的,散佈在中歐一帶,範圍從捷克、奧地利一直到德國南部。捷克隕石的顏色從橄欖綠到棕色都有,是一種十分罕見的玻隕石。其來源尚不明確,不過主要有兩套理論曾被提出,而且都認為它是外太空的產物。

  關於玻隕石的起源,地質學家普遍接受的理論如下。綜觀歷史,地球曾被無數隕石撞擊過,它們以高速和高壓撞上地殼。約 1,500 萬年前,有這樣一顆巨大隕石撞上歐洲中部的地表。衝擊的強烈高溫立刻使周圍的岩石液化,而熔化的岩石被高高拋到大氣層。熔化的物質掉回到地球時,很快地冷卻變硬,捷克隕石因而誕生。地球上另有三處玻隕石產地,理論上都是因為不同的隕石衝擊而產生的。

  另一個理論較少人支持,認為玻隕石來自月球。有些科學家注意到,玻隕石和月球表面下的岩石極為相似。它們有些經由火山運動露出月球表面。這套理論認為,由於某次月球上的火山爆發,被炸到外太空的岩石落到地球,因而產生了玻隕石。

  以一個更神秘的註解來做總結吧。寶石迷們聲稱由於這種石頭來自太空,因而賦予了它神秘的力量。





標準答案: 1. (B) 2. (D) 3. (A) 4. (C) 5. (B) 6. (C) 7. (A)


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